The Gold Diggers (1923)

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The Gold Digger films are often characterized as the quintessential 1930s musicals. Typically featuring a backstage musical formula, the films usually tell the story of the relationships and conflicts that occur during the production of a musical. While musical numbers occur along the way, additional fantastic and intricate musical numbers showcase Busby Berkeley’s choreographic skills in numbers that stray from the plot. Though the Gold Digger films typically conjure up images of Dick Powell, Joan Blondell, or Ruby Keeler, the films possess an interesting history that includes a wide range of talents and plot lines.

Long before the 1930s films were being produced, the genesis of the films came from a 1919 play called The Gold Diggers, by Avery Hopwood. This play popularized the term “gold digger” in reference to women who sought wealthy partners. Broadway producer David Belasco staged the farce with Ina Claire in the lead role, premiering the show on September 30, 1919, at the Lyceum Theatre. There, show show became a hit, running for two seasons in a row until June 1921 for 720 performances, prior to going on tour throughout the United States until 1923.

The full cast for the Broadway play included the following actors and roles:

Character Broadway cast
Jerry Lamar Ina Claire
Wally Saunders Horace Braham
Sadie Louise Burton
Gypsy Montrose Gladys Feldman
Mrs. Lamar Louise Galloway
Eleanor Montgomery Luella Gear
Tom Newton William Goodridge
Mabel Munroe Jobyna Howland
Cissie Gray Loraine Lally
Freddie Turner Day Manson
Stephen Lee Bruce McRae
Marty Woods Arthur Miles
James Blake H. Reeves-Smith
Fenton Jessup A.E. Scott
Trixie Andrews Lilyan Tashman
Topsy St. John Ruth Terry
Barney Barnett Frederick Truesdell
Dolly Baxter Katharine Walsh
Violet Dayne Beverly West

The play tells the story of a wealthy man named Stephen Lee who is convinced that the chorus girl engaged to his nephew is a “gold digger” and that she is interested only in his nephew’s money. In response, Lee confides in Jerry Lamar, another chorus girl, and asks her to convince his nephew to break the engagement. However, Lamar instead tries to convince Lee that not all chorus girls want money. While this may be the case, many of Lamar’s friends prove Lee’s fear to be true, as they appear to be money-hungry. Agitated with Lee, Lamar decides to make him appear foolish by getting him drunk and tricking him into proposing to her. In the end, her scheme causes no harm when the Lamar and Lee realize that they truly are in love with one another.

The show opened to mixed reviews, being critiqued as having moments that were humorous as well as moments that were dull. Another critic claimed that the show was vulgar and immoral in addition to giving the wrong impression of chorus girls. Nonetheless, the show was a hit and opened the door to success for its playwright, Hopwood; at one point, Hopwood had four shows running on Broadway simultaneously.

By 1923, The Gold Diggers was taken to the silver screen and adapted as a silent film. Based upon Hopwood’s play, both the silent film and play were produced by David Belasco. The film was produced and distributed by Warner Brothers, directed by Harry Beaumont, and released on September 22, 1923. Once filmed and edited, the feature was a total of 80 minutes in length.

The film’s plot is very similar to the plot of the play. Wally Saunders wishes to marry chorus girl Violet Dayne; however, his uncle, Stephen Lee, thinks that all chorus girls are gold diggers. Lee refuses to approve of the marriage. Dayne’s friend Jerry La Mar is not a gold digger, but she agrees to pursue Lee aggressively enough to make Violet look tamer by comparison. In the end, Lee and La Mar fall in love and get married. They remain in love even after he discovers the truth. Lee gives his permission for Dayne and Saunders to marry.

The film featured a cast which included:

Although some modern sources credit Louise Beavers with appearing in this film, such is not the case; Beavers appears in the 1929 remake.

Overall, The Gold Diggers (1923) was a success, grossing $501,000 at the box office after being filmed on a $280,000 budget.

Today, The Gold Diggers (1923) is believed to be lost.

About Annette Bochenek

Annette Bochenek of Chicago, Illinois, is a Ph.D. student and scholar of Hollywood’s Golden Age. She manages the Hometowns to Hollywood blog, in which she writes about her trips exploring the legacies and hometowns of Golden Age stars. Annette also hosts the “Hometowns to Hollywood” film series throughout the Chicago area. She has been featured on Turner Classic Movies and is the president of TCM Backlot’s Chicago chapter. In addition to writing for TCM Backlot, she also writes for Classic Movie Hub, Silent Film Quarterly, Nostalgia Digest, and Chicago Art Deco Society Magazine.
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